The Harsh Reality of Slums in Luis Buñuel’s “Los Olvidados”


“The great modern cities: New York, Paris, London, hide behind their magnificent building homes of misery that shelter malnourished children without hygiene, without schools, a harvest of future delinquency. The society tries to correct this evil, but the success of its effort is very limited. Only in a future where children’s and adolescent’s rights are vindicated will they be useful for society. Mexico, the great modern city is not an exception to this universal rule. That’s why this film based on facts from real life is not optimistic, and it leaves the solution to the problem to the society’s progressive forces” _The opening statement to “Los Olvidados”

Luis Buñuel directed “Los Olvidados”, aka “The Young and the Damned” or “The Forgotten Ones”, an unapologetic depiction of children living in the crime infested slums of Mexico City. Apparently, this film was the main inspiration behind “City of God”, and I can see how. It is just as brutal, if not more so. When it was released in 1950, “Los Olvidados” didn’t last more than three days in theaters due to the outrage it caused. The press, government, and upper class audiences were furious with the film. They labeled it as bad publicity for Mexico and Third World countries. “Los Olvidados” was simply being brutally honest in its portrayal of the never-ending cycle of street violence in the slums of a city.

Buñuel doesn’t shy away from exposing his audience to this cruel rotten world, we are forced to watch old men sexually abuse young girls, slum children beating up cripples for the heck of it, and kids stabbing one another for a few pesos. This is one of the bleakest films ever made about poverty and street children. It is an under-seen work of art that deserves to be mentioned amongst the greats. I hope one day Criterion restores the film to its original glory, so it could receive the respect it deserves. “The Young and the Damned” is an unflinching look at hell on earth; once seen, it will never be forgotten.

The Odyssey in Theo Angelopoulos’ “Landscape in the Mist”


In Theo Angelopoulos’ “Landscape in the Mist”, two kids run away from their home in Athens in search for their father whom they were told lives in Germany; but beneath the surface this film is about so much more. The journey they embark on is a metaphor of life itself. We all travel through time in search of something that may not even be there.

Everything goes by so fast, the cities we visit, the strangers we meet, painful chapters and joyful occurrences- it all comes and goes in a flash. At one point, a traveller looks at the kids, smiles and utters words that ring so true for each and every one of us.

“You’re funny kids you know that? It’s as if you don’t care about time passing, yet I know that you are in a hurry to leave. It’s as if you’re going nowhere, and yet you’re going somewhere…Me? I’m a snail slithering away into nothingness. I don’t know where I’m going. Once I thought I knew.”

We’re all aware of time passing, yet we pretend that we have all the time in the world. In a way, we’re all clueless kids travelling in a chaotic odyssey through time. We think we know where we’re going, but we really don’t. We’re all searching for different things, yet ultimately we’re looking for the same things, closure, wholeness, a sense of fulfilment. Everything seems like it’s within reach yet completely unattainable.

Will we ultimately reach our destination? Or will everything we long for forever remain a landscape in the mist? Theodoros Angelopoulos creates films with images so hauntingly beautiful, they will be seared into your brain. “Landscape in the Mist” transcends the medium with poetic lyricism that is rarely matched by any work of art.

The Vital Importance of Lukas Moodysson’s “Lilya 4-ever”

Lukas Moodysson’s “Lilya 4-ever” chronicles the life of a sixteen year old girl after she gets abandoned by her mother who flees to America to escape poverty in Sweden. The viewer is quickly plunged into a downward spiral of human trafficking, Scandinavian sex slavery and betrayal. Based on the true story of a Lithuanian girl, “Lilya 4-ever” is one of the saddest films ever made and a powerful reminder of what life can do to people who aren’t as lucky as you. The film left me completely devastated and Oksana Akinshina’s performance is absolutely heartbreaking. It hurts me to know that there are children who go through this all over the world.

After this film was released and heavily promoted by the campaigning groups UNICEF and End Child Prostitution, the Swedish minister debated the problems of sex trafficking. It was also exported to Russia and Easter Europe as a means to influence policy makers in countries where victims are often sourced. The director’s aim was to make a film that would awaken Europe into following Sweden’s lead in dealing with the exploitation of women. “Lilya 4-ever” was so powerful it helped reshape laws within society. This is as important and urgent as cinema gets.

The Greatness of Bela Tarr’s “Werckmeister Harmonies”

“The most merciful thing in the world, I think, is the inability of the human mind to correlate all its contents. We live on a placid island of ignorance in the midst of black seas of infinity, and it was not meant that we should voyage far. The sciences, each straining in its own direction, have hitherto harmed us little; but some day the piecing together of dissociated knowledge will open up such terrifying vistas of reality, and of our frightful position therein, that we shall either go mad from the revelation or flee from the light into the peace and safety of a new dark age.”_H.P. Lovecraft

I firmly believe that decades from now people will look back at the work of Bela Tarr in the same light as that of Tarkovsky, Bresson, Dreyerand, and Ozu- cinema of the highest order. To watch “Werckmeister Harmonies” is to look the unknown dead in the eye and see the insignificance of humanity and accept our inevitable mortality. This bleak vision of chaos attempts to reinvent cinema as we know it; and while doing so, it will make you question everything you know about the construct of society and the world around you. The imagery in this film is as daunting and intimidating as anything I’ve ever seen. It reminds me of the feeling you get when you look at the black emptiness of cosmic space. The more you attempt to grasp its vastness, the more you realize how insignificantly small you are. Watching this film felt like I was inadvertently peaking at something that is beyond myself. If there was ever a film worthy of the word life-changing, this is it.

The 10 Best Films of 2018

It’s a been a while since I’ve posted anything on this blog, but I figured it’s about time I get back to it. I do plan on writing more often throughout the year, and I’ll do my best to make up for my recent absence from ‘The Cinephile Fix’ with some upcoming film reviews and analyses. Also, “The Cinephile Fix” is now on Instagram too. Please follow:

The year has come to an end, and 2018 was generally a remarkable year for cinema. With films like “Rome” and “Cold War” garnering massive critical praise, you have two black-and-white foreign language films sweeping the awards season, which is quite rare in itself.

Some critically acclaimed films like “Cappernaum”, “Suspiria”, “Never Look Away”, “Mirai”, “Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse”, “Minding the Gap”, and “RGB” are not included in this list because I simply haven’t seen them yet, and didn’t want to postpone posting this list any longer. Anyway, without further ado, here’s my take on the best films of 2018:



Happy as Lazzaro

An unconventional contemporary take on Italian Neorealism, Alice Rohrwacher’s miraculous “Happy as Lazzaro” is not only the best film of the year, it is one of the most tender, spiritual, and poetic films in recent years. This allegorical fable is based on a real-life incident that took place in Italy where the widow of a marquess exploited the seclusion of her lands to keep her peasants working as slaves.

A film as beautiful as this one must have been written by a very kind soul. Shot on 16mm, “Happy as Lazzaro” takes place in a cruel world that has no room for kindness, and yet somehow, watching this profound piece of work filled me with an urgency to be as generous as its protagonist, Lazzaro. Do yourself a favor and watch this transcendent masterpiece as soon as you can. It will linger in your thoughts for years to come.




Cold War

I walked into this film knowing that I would be treated to some of the most striking black and white photography of the year and I wasn’t let down. After all, Pawek Pawikoski’s previous work, “Ida”, caught the world off guard with its stark imagery. “Cold War” is no different, the eloquent cinematography is something to behold. Lukasz Zal’s choices of camera angles are audacious and memorable. But make no mistake this isn’t a case of style over substance. There’s underlying emotional depth boiling beneath each and every frame; it drives the narrative to new heights.

Strong emotions are dealt with in a very understated way. There are no lengthy monologues bemoaning forbidden love; everything is expressed briefly or in whisper. In fact, most of the emotions are expressed through the framing of the actors within the scene, resulting in a film that is achingly beautiful. Joanna Kulig’s performance commands the screen. You can even feel her presence when she’s off screen, a feat few performers can pull off. “Cold War” is a phenomenal piece of filmmaking. The final moments in particular are breathtaking to say the least. The closing shot haunted my thoughts long after the credits started rolling.




The Wild Pear Tree

Nuri Bilge Ceylan is one of the most prominent filmmakers working today. When a Ceylan film gets released it should be a cause for celebration, and if you spot his wife’s name, Ebru Ceylan, in the credits sharing writing duties, you should know that you’re in for a treat. Heck, more than a treat, Ceylan’s films are so powerful, they have the power to change who you are and how you perceive the world around you. His latest, “The Wild Pear Tree”, is not even his best work, and yet it could be the most thought provoking film of the year.

The word masterpiece gets thrown around way too often, but Nuri Bilge Ceylan has a tendency to produce one after the other.  I can’t imagine how anyone watching this film and not ending up with a deeper understanding, or rather acceptance of life. The film forces viewers to grapple with questions about the purpose of life. Would you rather live in a world where God exists, or one where he doesn’t? Can Islam, or any religion for that matter, adapt to the modern world? What is the role of truth in an artist’s work? Is acceptance the key to happiness?





With a filmography that now includes “Shoplifters”, Hirokazu Koreeda solidified himself as the most important Japanese filmmaker alive. “After Life”, “Like Father Like Son”, and “Still Walking” are some of the most moving films I’ve seen. Here, Koreeda presents another powerful portrait of a family household in modern Japan. Koreeda is constantly compared to the great Japanese masters before him from Yasujiro Ozu to Mikio Naruse, and you can clearly see why. The way he directs resigned family stories is seamless and effortless. You will barely feel his presence behind the camera at all.

The plot revolves around a family of low-income workers sharing a tiny space and shoplifting to get by their daily struggles. On one particular night, they decide to take in a little girl locked out in a balcony. What unfolds after that will make you question the idea of family and the moral values of parenting in general.  The intimate exploration of social realism played like a Vittorio De Sica film. And much like a De Sica film, the ideas are multi-faceted and heart-wrenching. I can not recommend this highly enough.





After an eight-year absence, director Chang-dong Lee is back with perhaps the most suspenseful motion picture of the year. Based on the short story, “Barn Burning” by Haruki Murakami, the film never feels rushed and takes its time to unravel before our eyes. In fact, the slow-burning pacing and eerie atmosphere is what makes this Hitchcockian ride riveting from start to finish.

The film resembles a calm river with a raging current in its depth. The way Chang-dong Lee uses subtexts of class tension to make the audience feel powerless is fascinating. We end up just as helpless, angry and frustrated as the protagonist. The unbearable tension keeps boiling up till we reach an explosive ending that feels oddly satisfying, even though it shouldn’t feel that way at all. Chang-dong Lee’s “Burning” is filmmaking of the highest order.




The Ballad of Buster Scruggs

“The Ballad of Buster Scruggs” is an anthology of six short films that take place in 19th-century post-Civil War era during the settling of the Old West. The Coen Brothers’ signature dry humor combined with breathtaking cinematography makes this gem a joy to watch. I can’t stress how much I enjoyed watching this film; I simply did not want it to end.

The individual tales are all unique and original, and when seen as a whole, we get a multifaceted picture of the Wild West. “The Gal who Got Rattled” and “Meal Ticket” are two tales that are worth the price of admission alone (Netflix subscription?). To reveal anything about the short stories would spoil the unexpected nature of this anthology, but one thing I can say for sure is, you will most likely walk out remembering at least one or two chapters of this delightful picture.




First Reformed

In Paul Schrader’s “First Reformed”, we witness the slow deterioration of a man’s mental state. Much like “Taxi Driver”, Schrader invites us to the mind of a man contemplating death and murder. Travis Bickle looked upon his city with hate, the pastor played by Ethan Hawke has his loathing eyes set on big corporations. He starts losing faith, not in God, but in humanity.

Schrader screenplay explores the mind’s vulnerability to extremism, especially in today’s world,  a world where churches have turned a blind eye to the environmental destruction of God’s land. The film is meticulously photographed, written and edited. Nothing feels out of place in this disturbing yet timely descent into madness.




The Rider

“Ride like it’s gonna be the last horse you ever get on. ‘Cause any bronc could be the last one.” We never find out in advance when “the last time” of anything we enjoy or love is about to take place, the last moments you have with a loved one, the last meal you have at a spot you love, the last conversation you have with someone you hold dear to your heart. If we knew in advance, we would surely try as much as we can to cherish it. Our protagonist, Brady Blackburn, explains this notion to someone practicing rodeo riding. He learned this the hard way.

Chloe Zhao delivers one of the most mature picture of the year with her directorial effort, “The Rider”. On the surface, Zhao painted and realistic picture of the world of rodeo riding, but the film uses that world as a metaphor for life. It’s arrives at the conclusion that you should give up doing the things you love the second it starts to affect you in a bad way. This applies to anything in life. We all tend to cling on bad habits be it smoking cigarettes, or any unhealthy hobby you can think of. In the case of our hero it’s rodeo riding after a near fatal accident. We The things we take for granted every day are far more important than the things we enjoy momentarily.




Won’t You Be My Neighbor

If this exploration of the life and legacy of the legendary children’s TV host,  Fred Rogers, does not bring tears to your eyes, then you must be made of stone.  More than a mere tribute to the man, this documentary does not shy away from the controversies of his life and show. What we end up with is one of the most genuine and honest portraits ever committed to film.

“Won’t You Be My Neighbor” explores the life of a TV host, yet somehow it will make you think more about yourself than Mr. Rogers. It is one of the most inspiring documentaries ever made. I could not help but think of how we can improve as a collective civilization, and how we can improve individually as well. This heartwarming film will make you want to be a better person. It is the feel-good film of the year and will surely restore your faith in humanity.




The Other Side of the Wind
Orson Welles’ “The Other Side of the Wind” is finally here. Welles shot the movie between 1970 and 1976, but it took 48 years to finish the film’s post production. Perhaps we will never know if this is exactly the film he intended to make, either way, the genius of its maker can be seen on full display.

“The Other Side of the Wind” is shot like a documentary, or at least it is made to look that way, and it contains a film within a film. The vigorous editing, dynamic composition, jazzy soundtrack, combined with the punchy dialogue fuels the film with an energetic rhythm.  It is bursting with life. “The Other Side of the Wind” is a remarkable achievement that should studied and analyzed in film schools, because it’s as much about the filmmaker as it is about filmmaking itself. It also happens to contain one of the most well photographed sex scenes ever.
Honorable Mentions: “Eighth Grade”, “Bisbee ’17”, “Dogman”, “Ayka”, “The Wild Boys”, “Coincoin and the Extra Humans”, “Roma”, “Let the Sunshine In”, “Hereditary”, “The Favourite”, “Annihilation”, “Leave No Trace”, “The Guilty”, “Ready Player One”, “Madeline’s Madeline”, “Ryuichi Sakamoto: Coda”, “Letter from Masanjia”, “BlacKkKlansman”, “Sorry to Bother You”, “Beautiful Boy”, “Sleep Has Her House”, “24 Frames”

The 20 Best Films of 2015

Any list should be useful in containing films you’re not familiar with. In that sense, the purpose of this list is not to list movies in order of preference, but rather function as a suggestion to seek out significant films that might have flown under your radar. The goal is to call attention to movies you might have missed in a year where blockbusters overshadowed smaller productions.

For that reason, I have excluded “Star Wars: The Force Awakens”, even though it deserves a place on this list. But let’s face it; we’ve all seen J.J. Abrams’ retro throwback. Another film I greatly admire, nowhere to be found here, is Terrence Malick’s “Knight of Cups”. Technically, Malick’s film doesn’t open nationwide till March of 2016, which disqualifies it from inclusion. That said, had it been released in 2015, I would easily call it the best film of the year. You can read my review of “Knight of Cups” here. Without further ado, the best films of the year in no particular order:

The Look of Silence

Joshua Oppenheimer follows his bizarre, “The Act of Killing”, with another brutal documentary focusing on the aftermath of a genocide. During the 1960’s Indonesian genocide, Ramli Rukun was one of millions accused of being a communist by the military dictatorship. He was taken to a nearby river where executioners repeatedly stabbed him, chopped off his penis, and drank his blood before dumping his body in the water. Decades after this horrific ordeal, Adi Rukun confronts the group of men who killed his older brother.

At first, the killers brag about their killings with nationalistic pride. “I know from experience, if you cut off a woman’s breast, it looks like a coconut milk filter, full of holes…it doesn’t matter. If they’re bad people you can hack them.” At the end of each interview, Rukun reveals to the former killer his identity, and the camera captures the most extraordinarily reaction shot, the look of silence.


The Lobster (Greece/UK)

“The Lobster” is a love story set in a dystopian future where single people are arrested and transferred to a hotel. There they are obliged to find a matching mate within 45 days. If they fail to meet the deadline, they are transformed into animals and released into the woods. This bizarre synopsis alone should be enough to tickle your curiosity. Yorgos Lanthimos’ dark comedy is an exercise in absurdness. It also happens to be the funniest film of the year.

If it were up to me, I would’ve awarded it the Palme d’Or at Cannes Film Festival, where it was selected to compete for the prestigious prize. The most original film of the year mocks the many facets of society from our universal obsession of finding a compatible spouse to reproducing. “The Lobster” is pitch-perfect satire that ridicules modern dating obligations. Colin Farrell delivers one of the most underrated performances of the year.


Victoria (Germany)

Victoria is the most suspenseful German thriller since “Run Lola Run”. Sebastian Schipper notably shot the entire film in one single take clocking in at 134 minutes. Last year’s “Birdman” may have stolen the spotlight of this feat, but unlike “Birdman”, “Victoria” does it for real, without any smart transitional editing tricks.

Victoria is a young Spanish pianist who quickly finds herself in the midst of a heist with a group of friends she just met. Set within a single night in Berlin, the film grabs you by the throat from the get-go, and keeps you on the edge of your seat till the end. “Victoria” is pure cinematic fineness. Schipper neatly develops his characters within the first half of the night, before thrusting the characters we grew to love into realistically portrayed danger. The film also features a magnificent musical score by Nils Frahm.


When Marnie Was There (Japan)

 Pixar’s “Inside Out” may have the brains, but Studio Ghibli’s “When Marnie Was There” most certainly has the bigger heart. Studio Ghibli is synonym with quality animation. The truth is, every Studio Ghibli review is most likely to contain the same descriptive words, breathtaking animation, fleshed-out characters, beautiful music, and a heartwarming story.

“When Marnie Was There” is no exception. The studio’s first film since Hayao Miyazaki’s retirement is an exceptional work of art. The film tells the coming-of-age story of a young introverted foster child with asthma who is sent to the countryside by her guardians. Soon she runs into Marnie, a ghostly friend at the big mansion across the river. Through their friendship, she learns many things about herself. As for the viewer, we learn about traditional Japanese values: forgives, family, and harmony.

The Big Short (USA)

Adam McKay figured out a way to make a film centered on the credit and housing market collapse of 2008 entertaining, and that’s no easy feat. It is the strongest film explanation of the global financial crisis to date. The reason it works so well is because it takes financial concepts that are hard to grasp by the general public and packages it as a comprehensible “Wall Street Banking For Dummies” nutshell.

“The Big Short” is surprisingly light footed for a subject matter so heavy- the greatest economic tragedy since the Great Depression. McKay managed to translate finance into plain English and make it all engaging thanks to a script that boasts comedic one-liners from an all-star ensemble. Yet, the film is as unsettling as it is entertaining. It possesses the energy of “The Wolf of Wall Street” and the investigative enthusiasm of “Moneyball”.

Listen to Me Marlon (UK)

After watching Listen to Me Marlon, the first thing I did was walk over to the ticket booth to buy another ticket for the next showing. Stevan Riley dissects Brando’s life using nothing but audio recovered from tapes the actor recorded himself. He also utilises a 3D digital version of Brando’s head that the actor got made in the 1980s in order to be part of future digital performances. It’s a first documentary of its kind.

The end result is the best-documented film on, not only the most influential actor ever, but on acting itself as an art form. Riley paints Brando’s words with corresponding visuals that perfectly encapsulate the meaning behind the spoken word. Like Brando’s many monumental performances, Riley has figured out a way to showcase a portrait in a way that has never been done before. To watch this documentary is to not only understand why Brando is regarded as the greatest actor of all time, but it is to grasp the undeniable fact that he was truly one of the most remarkable human beings to ever walk this planet.


Tu Dors Nicole (Canada)

At one point, Nicole mentions she plans on visiting Iceland with her best friend; to which her brother’s buddy replies, “What are you going to do there?” She then thinks about it for a second and answers, “Nothing. We’ll do nothing, but we’ll be doing nothing somewhere else. Nice nothing.”

I can see viewers watching this gem and complaining that nothing really happens throughout the film, but it’s the nice kind of nothing. Besides, by watching all this beautiful shot black and white nothingness, so much can happen to the viewer.


Bridge of Spies (USA)

Steven Spielberg’s sharp espionage thriller is a marvelous exercise in classical-virtuoso filmmaking. “Bridge of Spies” feels like it belongs to a different era of films. Tom Hanks’ performance has Jimmy Stewart in “Mr. Smith Goes to Washington” written all over it, and Spielberg’s classical directing cements him as a modern day Frank Capra. This is a fine piece of vintage Hollywood moviemaking.

Fans of Spielberg will find many of his signature trademarks, from the classical musical score, to the suburban family setting, great iconic set pieces, and the common theme of ordinary men achieving extraordinary tasks. The term traditional can perceived in a negative light, here I mean it in a positive way. At times when every filmmaker is trying to break new ground, the old-fashioned “Bridge of Spies” paradoxically feels rather refreshing.


Anomalisa (USA)

Like every Charlie Kauffman film, “Anomalisa” exposes the melancholy of the human condition in spades. However, what distinguishes it from his past work, and really any stop-motion animated film to date, is its deliberate use of that form of animation. Stop-motion and voice acting in particular serve the plot dynamics as opposed to being a filmmaking gimmick.

“Anomalisa” is a slice-of-life animation that couldn’t have articulated its message in any other form. Voice-over acting serves as a narrative plot device metaphorically symbolizing the act of falling in love. “Anomalisa” is just as much about falling out of love, as it is about falling in love. Nevertheless, what makes “Anomalisa” truly stand out is not what it is about, but how it is about what it’s about.


Ex Machina (UK)

In one of the film’s most memorable scenes, our two main characters examine a drip painting by Pollock. They articulate how the artist made his hand go where it wanted but didn’t plan his every move. The piece of art would never have come to be if you preplanned every stroke. Consciousness exists in the gap between randomness and deliberated action, so as long as an AI is programmed to do automatic actions, it can never be regarded as truly conscious. In order for it to be regarded as an equal, we would have to somehow prove that it acts through random chaotic impulse.

“Ex Machina” is a study of what it means to be conscious/human. With its release, I’m convinced more than ever that we are in the midst of a British New Wave in science fiction cinema. The film challenges the intellect by putting humankind, artificial intelligence, and our inevitable future together under the microscope.


Mad Max: Fury Road (Australia/USA)

I think by now, it’s quite clear that “Mad Max: Fury Road” is the blockbuster spectacle of the year. It has been discussed to death. With a strong feminist undertaking, mastermind George Miller pumps up his post-apocalyptic trilogy with a nitrous oxide charge of marvelous cinema.

This recklessly fast-paced motion picture is quite possible the greatest stunt film since Buster Keaton took over a locomotive in “The General”. The fact that it tackles contemporary issues such as gender equality, climate change and the inevitable water wars to come is just the icing on top – or shall I say the shooting flame on an electric guitar?

The Assassin (Taiwan)

Some critics have likened the viewing of this film to watching paint dry. But when the overall canvas resembles a scenic museum piece, you don’t really mind the slow pace; the paint can take all the time it needs to dry. Hou Hsiao-hsien’s first feature in eight years won the Best Director award at Cannes Film Festival, and with good reason, it is a feast to the senses, a moving painting if there every was one.

That said it’s not for everyone. Students of film will appreciate “The Assassin” more so than regular moviegoers. Hou creates an anti-wuxia film, replacing generic wuxia fight scenes seen in “Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon”, “Hero”, and “House of Flying Daggers” with soothing compositional elegance. “The Assassin” floods us with one picturesque sequence after the other. The camera often peeks at characters through thin layers of fabric curtains, ultimately unveiling the most beautifully composed film of the year.

Son of Saul (Hungary)

A Hungarian Jewish prisoner involuntary assists Nazis with operating the mass extermination inside a concentration camp. One day, as he’s forced to burn his own people, he comes across the body of young boy he takes for his son. We’ve seen one too many Holocaust films, but “Son of Saul” takes us closer to the horrors of Auschwitz than most films.

Laszlo Nemes shot the film almost entirely in close-ups sculpting a claustrophobic documentation of how a concentration camp operated. It is one of the year’s most important films. Not only does it accurately depict the horrific procedural mechanics of a concentration camp, but it also manages to use exceptional framing to trap viewers inside one of the most horrific places ever constructed by man.


Winter of Fire: Ukraine’s Fight for Freedom (Ukraine)

Witnessing the Ukrainian revolution is bound to bring back memories of the Egyptian revolution. Watching how dictatorships similarly react to peaceful demonstrations is absolutely fascinating. In late 2013, Ukraine erupted after president Victor Yanukovych refused to sign an agreement to join the European Union, and resorted to hardening an alliance with Russia instead. “Winter of Fire” covers the almost 90 day uprising period that led to Yanukovych’s resignation.

Netflix scored its first Oscar nomination for Best Documentary in 2014, and two year later, the streaming service is emulating that success with a deeply involving look at the Ukraine situation. While “The Square” took a micro look at the Egyptian revolution by following a small group of protesters, “Winter of Fire” uses a macro bird-eye perspective look at the whole situation. Some of the images of footage presented in this documentary should send shivers down your spine.

Sicario (USA)

Denis Villeneuve takes a tactical filmmaking approach to explore morality in the violent world of drug cartels. “Sicario” fumes with chilling photography. This comes as no surprise when you have 13-time Academy Award nominated cinematographer Richard Deakins added to the mix. The film also boils with nerve-wracking tension, thanks to a thunderous score by Johann Johannsson, and Benicio Del Toro’s powerhouse performance.

Few actors demand the viewer’s utmost attention like Benicio De Toro. With only a few lines and limited screen time, Del Toro completely dominates the film from start to finish. Much like Anthony Hopkins in “The Silence of the Lambs”, and Marlon Brando in “Apocalypse Now”, one can feel Del Toro’s towering presence hovering over the whole film, even when he’s off-screen.


It Follows (USA)

“It Follows” is a near-perfect horror film. When I first watched this terrifying film, I was looking over my shoulder the whole way back. It very much follows you long after the credits roll. David Robert Mitchell has perfected a nerve-racking tale that is both intelligent in its use of metaphoric plot points and hypnotically terrifying, the like of which we haven’t seen since Stanley Kubrick’s “The Shining”.

Layered with an STD subtext where sex has metaphysical implications, the film promotes the behavior as much as it feasts on sex-related fears. This is the type of film made for drive-in theatres, and if this were to screen in a drive-in, you would more likely be glued to the screen in absolute terror than undressing your partner sitting next to you. Everything about “It Follows” is perfectly executed, from the haunting Disasterpeace original score, to the dreadful atmosphere reminiscent of the work of John Carpenter. It’s very much an impeccable exercise in pure terror.


Room (Ireland)

What would it be like to experience the world for the first time? “Room” tells the extraordinary story of a mother and her five-year-old child’s escape from captivity. Much of the film takes place inside a small room. This portion of the film plays out like a suffocating version of “Panic Room”. Both main characters and the camera never leave the confines of the room, which is a remarkable technical achievement in itself.

However, the film’s dark first half is perfectly balanced with a heartwarming second and third act. “Room” has the power to make us look around, and notice the little things we often take granted in life. Lenny Abrahamson practically opens a window to the world. This dark room shines with uplifting performances from Brie Larson and Jacob Tremblay.


Inside Out (USA)

Pixar’s latest animated masterpiece has steered viewers, both young and old, to take a deep look inside their own minds. Much of the film takes place inside the head of an eleven-year-old girl dealing with joy, sadness, anger, fear and disgust. The film is full of insights about the nature of how we process emotions. More importantly, it demonstrates how we are essentially the sum of our past experiences.

Memories from different points of our life shape who we are and how we behave. We learn that every outer-experience dictates an inner emotion, and suppressing emotions like sadness won’t do any good. In fact, it is important to acknowledge and get fully immersed in every emotion to lead a healthy life. “Inside Out” compresses the universal fundamentals of humanity in a fun journey to the core of child psychology.


The Revenant (USA)

Alejandro González Iñárritu continues his campaign of experimental filmmaking with “The Revenant”. Iñárritu always had a flair for pulling off impossible feats. His first three features, “Amores Perros”, “21 Grams” and “Babel”, were exercises of nonlinear interconnected narratives. ”Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance)” appears to have no editing whatsoever, and came from the realization that “we live our lives with no editing”.

His latest entry in a very impressive filmography practices natural lighting. “The Revenant” uses no artificial lighting techniques whatsoever. Iñárritu’s dedication accumulates to an anti-revenge flick simultaneously breathtaking and brutal. In a film with standout action-packed cinematography endeavors, my favorite scene is surprisingly the film’s quietest moment. Hugh Glass encounters a lone Native American butchering a wild beast in the middle of nowhere. For the briefest moments, two individuals from opposing sides, strip themselves of titles and skin color. At desperate times, they become simply men sharing a meal.


45 Years (UK)

“45 Years” portrays the devastating effects of keeping secrets in a long marriage. After an incident from the past gets uncovered, we witness the old couple attempting to recapture youth in a desperate attempt to cling on the grounds they’ve built over 45 years of marriage. The film speaks of the difficulties of sustaining a relationship so long and taming retrospective jealousy. At the end, one can’t help but recognize the fragility of relationships, no matter how long-lasting.

Charlotte Rampling commands the screen with a tragic performance sizzling with subtle nuances that expose an avalanche of emotions. It is a case study in refined acting, and perhaps the most powerful female performance of the year. The final moments of “45 Years” makes very strong use of musical lyrics, helping the protagonist, and the viewer, arrive to a heartbreaking revelation.

Honorable Mentions:

“Phoenix”, “Clouds of Sils Maria”, “Charlie’s Country”, “Macbeth”, “Mustang”, “Carol”, “Beasts of No Nation”, “Hard to be a God”, “Steve Jobs”, “Theeb”, “Youth”, “Spotlight”, “Queen of Earth”, “Brooklyn”, “Star Wars: The Force Awakens”, “The Martian”, “Chriaq”, “The Russian Woodpecker”, “James White”, “Hitchcock/Truffaut”, “Kingsman: The Secret Service”, “Straight Outta Compton”, “Paddington”.






The Improbable Death of “The Cinema”


As the means of how we attain movies evolves, enthusiasts busy themselves with various concerns about the bleak future of cinema. Studio executives, theater owners, filmmakers, and film critics distress about new emerging threats that menace the foundations of the way we consume cinema. The “death of cinema” drumbeat erupts every few decades, but the thunderous echo of that alarming sound eventually vanishes into thin air.

The first tidal wave to threaten to sweep traditional movie-going experiences came with the sudden breakthrough of home video in the mid 1970s. Yet as years went by, home entertainment and traditional movie theaters found a way to coexist in harmony. The latest so-called threat to cinema is the growing popularity of, both legal and illegal, online streaming services. Despite repeated concerns, scrutinising both film history and emerging data proves that the aforementioned developments are merely fluctuations in an evolving industry where the grounds are constantly shifting.

The film industry brims with theories on what makes millenials tick, and Hollywood’s worst fear is that younger generations are drifting towards online streaming as an alternative to old entertainment consumption patterns. However, despite the youth getting seduced by the ease of online streaming, box-office numbers show they are not shying away from multiplexes for the bigger movies.

According to the Hollywood Reporter, Universal Studios single handedly shattered all records collecting $5.77 billion as of August 2015 and these numbers are bound to grow with four months to go until the end of the year. The same report states that global and domestic theater attendances are spiking for other studios as well.

Ironically, Netflix’s first cinematic release in their initiative to push the boundaries of their capabilities was a major commercial flop. Beasts of No Nations performed below expectations grossing only $50,699. Yet, when it comes to producing and distributing their own films, Netflix are relativele newcomers. The low box-office turnout to an otherwise critically praised film can be attributed to the fact that viewers had the option to stream it at home. Just as Netflix struggles to break into the studio system, Hollywood studios are having a hard time establishing their presence within the online streaming platform.

BGR reports that 21st Century Fox, NBC Universal and Disney, the owners of the rival streaming service, Hulu, are finding difficulty landing on a common strategy, because “the three companies are already fiercely competitive with each other.” Cinema isn’t witnessing its own demise; we are in the midst of a continental drift within the film industry, where both Hollywood studios and streaming services awkwardly attempt to coexist.


Perhaps the most logically accurate analysis of the current state of cinema comes from The Guardian’s Fred Wagner; “at the cinema, movies cater to groups of people, and thus try to appeal to plus-ones and tag-alongs as well as natural fans. That is why kids’ films have storylines for adults, and why romcoms go out of their way to attract men. But the Internet is different. As viewers are watching alone, films can be made exclusively for certain fanbases and still be confident of finding an audience.” Wagner predicts a splintering of the industry, where films are either made for the movie theatres or for other mediums.

A more compelling argument would be that streaming video is only directly affecting its home entertainment predecessors, as in physical discs such as DVDs and Blu-Rays. Streaming services like Netflix, Amazon Prime, and Hulu reach a combined annual viewership of around 3.5 billion compared to an estimated 2.4 billion disc views. So in a sense, streaming video is only affecting the industry within the boundaries of home entertainment. Digitally streaming films will hammer the final nail in the coffin of movies in physical form, the same way Laserdiscs killed VHS tapes.

In a similar fashion, going to the movies in a picture house is only affected by technological advancements within the evolution of the movie-going experience. The one thing that did exist from the very beginning is the movie theater. It is practically as old as film itself, but it too evolves and constantly changes. Before nickelodeons and movie theaters, there were vaudeville houses displaying live acts, each lasting between five to ten minutes to an audience.

When the Lumiere brothers arrived to the United States, they hooked their cinematograph to the magic lantern and projected short films to a live audience in these vaudeville houses. Later on, nickelodeons came along igniting the birth of the modern theater. Deluxe theaters were built and they became the go-to place for film fans holding a capacity of up to 6000 seats. There was the casual weekly change of program and each week the decorative exterior would light up a new movie title in colourful light bulbs.

Deluxe theaters also offered a better service with ushers walking customers to their assigned seats. S.L. Rothafel is often credited for making deluxe theaters such a pleasant environment, for his motto was to treat the audience like kings and queens. He later added a cooling system and theaters were air conditioned for the first time in history. These deluxe theaters made motion pictures the dominant form of entertainment. Today, deluxe theaters are getting run over by multiplexes and IMAX cinemas projecting digital as opposed to celluloid.

The notion that streaming video threatens to kill cinema can only be viewed as a misconception, for history and data prove that home entertainment and cinemas exist within different realms of the entertainment industry. They affect preceding technology as opposed to crossing over to eliminating one another. Whenever the line between cinema and home entertainment come up, leading Hollywood filmmakers take out their chalk and draw a sharp distinctive line between the two industries by introducing a new “immersive” selling point. This long feud with home entertainment has produced innovative technological advancement such as 60 frames per second projection, 8k digital restorations, and 3D. Today, even 35-70mm film-reel projections attract art-house fanatics towards indie cinemas.


In Savoring a Century of ‘The Cinema’, Roger Ebert wrote “books and plays can provide us with stories. But the movies uniquely create the impression that we have had an experience. The key word is we. I have seen a lot of movies by myself, but the experience is not the same as seeing a film with a large group of strangers. The greatest movie-going experiences of my life – the premieres of Apocalypse Now and Do the Right Thing, both at the Cannes Film Festival – were great not just because of the movies but because nowhere else do more people gather in the same theater to see them. Together, we – a cross-section of humanity – had an experience, and because it mirrored our shared humanity, it was somehow spiritual; we were giving witness.” If film history taught us anything, it’s that audiences going to the movies in large masses always prevails.


Film Analysis: “Knight of Cups” ★★★★★ (5/5)


There’s enough spiritual clarity in “Knight of Cups” to make viewers blinded by sorrow or depression see beauty in life. Oscar Wilde once wrote, “Every portrait that is painted with feeling is a portrait of the artist, not the sitter… It is not the sitter who is revealed by the painter; it is rather the painter who, on the colored canvas, reveals himself.” If there is any truth to Wilde’s words, then there’s no denying that director, Terrence Malick, is a man of goodwill and exquisite character.

This comes as no surprise, for Malick kicked off his career with two milestone films that promised the world the arrival of the next Kubrick, Shakespeare, or Mozart. His debut came in 1973 in the form of “Badlands”; today, it is regarded as a bona fide classic, and one of the greatest cinematic debuts of all time. Five years later, Malick teamed up with cinematographer Néstor Almendros and the rest is history.

During production of “Days of Heaven”, cinematographer Néstor Almendros was going blind. It is said that before each shot, he would have his assistant photograph the shot with a Polaroid camera. After that, he would view it under a high-powered magnifying glass. I can only imagine that the thought of “Days of Heaven” being possibly his last chance to cement the magnus opus of his career drove Almendros to achieving what he did. The end result was a film universally accepted among film critics at the time to be the most gorgeously photographed film ever made.

It takes one great work of art to be remembered in history, one film to gain the reputation of a master of your craft, Malick had two of those and he was just getting started. What followed is the stuff of legend. The always-reclusive Malick disappeared off the face of the earth for two decades leaving hungry fans starving for more.

While Malick had a distinctive photographic eye from the get-go, it wasn’t till the second renaissance of his career that he found his unique cinematic voice. The so-called painter was revealed with the release of “The Thin Red Line”, “The New World”, “The Tree of Life”, “To the Wonder”, and “Knight of Cups”. The aforementioned films are set in different time periods. They take place during World War II, the European colonization of the Americas, the birth of the universe, and the modern world. Yet with subject matters so far apart in time and space, they are stitched close together through a seamless therapeutic tone. The thread binding Malick films together is the look and feel of a master who has fully realized his own unique style, abstract beauty.

I have written about the painter, now it is time to explore the sitter, a screenwriter called Rick played by Christian Bale in the wonderful colored canvas that is “Knight of Cups”. Malick’s signature-floating camera trails the screenwriter as he searches for meaning in his life. Rick is surrounded by everything anyone could dream of in the glamorous extravagance of Hollywood; yet, he couldn’t feel more alone.

I was reminded of a scene in another Malick masterpiece, “The Thin Red Line”. Two soldiers have a very brief yet extremely intimate exchange of words in an empty abandoned house. “Do you ever get lonely?” one asks. A brief moment of silence follows, before the other answers, “only around people.”

As with all Malick films, the viewer drifts from one narrated philosophical thought to another, leaving the film in its full form open for interpretation. However, viewers will be able to reach a solid understanding of the message by examining the unique film poster of “Knight of Cups”.

knight of cups

The title refers to a tarot card embodying a very specific character. Rick represents the “Knight of Cups”, an intelligent dreamer with high principles who also gets easily influenced by others. The film’s core theme is encapsulated in the artwork of the poster, which refers to the work of Jacob Bohme, a German philosopher who believed that humans fall from grace, and that in order to find God again, they have to go through hell first.

Malick, a Harvard graduate in philosophy, injects more ideas in his film than most directors achieve throughout their entire filmography. At one point, Rick narrates a very significant story, which goes like this: “Once there was a young prince whose father, the king of the east, sent him down into Egypt to find a pearl. But when the prince arrived, the people poured him a cup. Drinking it, he forgot he was the son of a king, forgot about the pearl and fell into a deep sleep.”

Much like the prince, Rick, constantly tries to remember his true purpose and place in this world. “All those years living the life of someone I didn’t even know,” he narrates. “I can’t remember the man I wanted to be.” Another character tells him to find his way “from darkness to light…remember.” We also hear him whisper “wake up” to himself, which directly references the deep sleep state of the prince.

The search for our place in the cosmos doesn’t only plague Rick’s mind, but that of viewer’s as well, especially whenever Malick cuts to breathtaking exterior shots of Earth rotating in a sea of darkness. We are all lost princes searching for our identity, place and role in the short time we have on this planet. We long for something we have no recollection of, so instead, we find a way to escape our suffering.

For Rick, taking a deep dive into the stimulating world of lust and partying seems to momentarily satisfy his existence. In one scene, a bystander mentions escaping the harshness of reality by attending ketamine parties, an escapist drug of this generation. Malick also randomly cuts to picturesque shots music festivals where thousands of ravers swirl around in artificial ecstasy induced by drugs. This is a master at work; rather than spoon-feeding his message through dialogue, Malick paints it with poetic visuals.

With the release of “Knight of Cups”, at the age of 72, I’m positive that Terrence Malick is more in tune with the mindset of the current generation than any young filmmaker working today. This concurrently puts him far ahead of all veteran filmmakers attempting to regain the glory days of the pinnacles of their past.

Another character, Elizabeth, played by Natalie Portman, has a different way of escaping. She tells Rick that to avoid sadness, she goes to sleep. When she wakes up, for the briefest of moments, she doesn’t recall her troubles. Then of course she does remember and sadness flows back into her conscious. That moment of emptiness or forgetfulness before recollecting the gravity of her situation is bliss for her; it’s also another way of escape or fooling one’s self.

This all may sound a bit bleak; yet somehow Malick turns it into an extremely uplifting journey. In fact, one of the film’s most powerful moments flips a negative into a positive. A man of God explains that the people that hurt us most in our lives are simultaneously the ones that love us most. We should be grateful for this hurt, for the suffering they send us ultimately elevates us to a higher place- we become wiser better versions of ourselves. Terrence Malick’s “Knight of Cups” is philosophical fiction at its finest.

Tribeca Talks: Christopher Nolan and Bennett Miller

On a Monday evening in a packed house at the Tribeca Performing Arts Center, the crowd erupted in applause as critically acclaimed directors Christopher Nolan and Bennett Miller took the stage. “Just to make things clear…how much of that was for him and how much of it was for me?” joked the two-time Academy Award nominated Miller, turning applause into laughter.

Before attending this delightful talk between two of this generation’s most prominent directors, I wondered who was responsible for making both auteurs go toe-to-toe in a Tribeca discussion. After all, their work couldn’t be more different. Miller is more driven towards heavy dramatic independent films such as Capote, Moneyball, and last year’s Cannes favorite, Foxcatcher, whereas Nolan is a blockbuster sculptor with a multi-billion dollar RESUME.

It turned out to be less of a discussion and more of a Nolan interview. Although, I would’ve loved for the spotlight to be shared by both directors, it made sense for Miller to moderate Nolan in a house full of Nolan fanboys. If IMDb message boards have taught us anything, it’s not to tick off Nolan fans.

After a brief, yet probably unnecessary, run through Nolan’s impressive filmography, Miller started to ask all the right questions. Right off the bat, it felt like one mastermind was challenging the intellect of another. Miller’s first question was if there’s a CONTINUITY of themes throughout his work.

“Not really, I try and begin every film with some interesting questions. If there’s some CONTINUITY, I’m not very conscious of it – except for leaving questions at the end of the film,” replied Nolan.

Miller, however, had done his homework, pointing out that he re-watched some of Nolan’s film the previous night, and noticed that both Inception and Interstellar revolved around a main character that tries to overcome extraordinary obstacles to reach a very simple yet human emotion. In Inception it was to reunite with his wife and kids. Similarly, in last year’s Interstellar, the main character had to travel through time and space to reunite with his daughter.

Nolan’s insightful reply channeled towards the balance between family and work: “The process of getting married and having children… I’ve tried to use that in my work. I can just always be driven by things that are important to me. I can look out the WINDOW and see my kids playing in the grass and that becomes the key image in Inception. I’d rather be out there playing with them than writing a script, but you use that emotion.”

The conversation then tiptoed to various random SUBJECTS from the importance to preserve film in a digital world, to his policy or lack of policy when working with different styled actors. At one point Miller asked Nolan about his first memory of film, to which he replied:  “My first memory of going to a film is probably seeing Snow White in re-release. I very much remember seeing the evil witch; the evil queen who transforms herself into the witch with the apple, and being absolutely terrified and going down on the floor of the movie theatre behind the seat.”

When asked about his current worst fear, Nolan said that it’s to embark on a project that you fall out of love with. “The big fear is that you get halfway through and think, ‘No, this isn’t something I really care about anymore.’ So before I embark on a project, I just have to test it, however I test it, my writing drafts or living with it, thinking about it. You have to be sure that you’re going to be as happy to be obsessed with this project three years later.”

There was a lot of talk about Nolan’s early CAREER, and how watching STAR WARS for the first time changed his life. He also modestly mentioned how he was lucky to be where he is today, because his budgets gradually increased throughout his CAREER, so he never really felt that giant leap from making indie films such as Following andMemento to mega-blockbusters like The Dark Knight trilogy and Interstellar.

It comes as no surprise that Miller kept steering the conversation towards the work that most resembled his own,Memento. “Memento is a classic example of what can happen when you don’t know what you’re doing. As you learn more and more, it gets harder and harder to put aside the rules. Making unconventional films is precarious BUSINESS.” Nolan’s answer very much reminded me of Spielberg reminiscing about his early years as a filmmaker: “As I was younger, I was more courageous, or I was more stupid. So when I think of Jaws, I think of courage and stupidity and both of those things EXISTING underwater.”

Towards the end of the discussion, the floor was OPENED to to the audience for questions, most of which revolved around young aspiring filmmakers asking for advice. The last question triggered the talk’s biggest laugh. “Alright…so at the end of Inception…” The fan wanted to shine some light on Nolan’s personal interpretation to the film’s ending (the spinning top). Bennett Miller then STEPPED in and tried to spare Nolan from answering the question. “I asked him that myself before coming out. He said it’s not for public consumption.”

The great Christopher Nolan did not need any help though, as he brushed off the question with class. “I’m certainly not going to answer that or I would have put it in the film.” He further explained that providing an explanation would kill all the interesting viewer interpretations out there, and he’d rather leave it up to the viewer to decide.

I leave you with how mastermind, Stanley Kubrick, elegantly tackled a similarly posed question: “I would not think of quarreling with your interpretation nor offer any other, as I have FOUND it always the best policy to allow the film to speak for itself.”

Great Scenes: “Gravity”

The first time Kowalski saved Stone’s life was earlier, when he told her to detach. The second time is in another post impact scene that mirrors the first. Only this time, the roles are reversed. He’s the one about to drift into infinite blackness. We see that he’s dragging her with him and the only chance for any of them to survive is if he cuts off the rope. In other words, Kowalski saves her life again through detachment. It’s not by preventing her to float with him into space, but by teaching her that sometimes it’s ok to let go, both literally and metaphorically. “You have to learn to let go,” he says. It’s a beautiful scene that should feel therapeutical for anyone carrying past grief on their shoulders for far too long.